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Connecticut Economic Digest: October 2001 issue
Multiple Jobholding Trends | Town / City Profile: Bristol | Occupational Profile: Correctional Officers | Industry Clusters | Housing Update

Multiple Jobholding Trends
By Jungmin Charles Joo, Associate Research Analyst, DOL

A multiple jobholder is an employed person (16 years and older) who has two or more jobs as a wage and salary worker, is self-employed and also holds a wage and salary job, or works as an unpaid family worker and also holds a wage and salary job. The figures for states are available beginning 1994 from unpublished data produced from Current Population Survey microdata by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (see note). Below is a brief analysis of multiple jobholding data for Connecticut, all states, and the nation. Their characteristics and reasons are also discussed.


There were 109,000 multiple jobholders in Connecticut during 2000. This is 6.5 percent of employed State residents, up from 5.9 percent in 1999. By contrast, the nation's multiple jobholding rate decreased from 5.8 percent in 1999 to 5.6 percent in 2000. In fact, last year's rate for our State was the highest in the last seven years. The lowest multiple jobholding rate was recorded in 1998 at 5.1 percent. Connecticut's rates were consistently below the national level during 1995 through 1998. However, the State's proportion of multiple jobholders rose above the nation's in the last two years. All in all, multiple jobholding rates for both Connecticut and the nation averaged about six percent during the last seven years.


As the table below shows, multiple jobholding rates among the states varied widely in 2000. Generally, States in the northern half of the country tended to have higher rates of multiple jobholding, while those in the southern half tended to have lower rates (see map on right). Nebraska had the highest multiple jobholding rate at 10.3 percent. Florida recorded the lowest multiple jobholding rate at 3.9 percent. Connecticut ranked as the state with the nineteenth highest rate in the nation in 2000, up from twenty-seventh in 1999. Among the six New England states, Connecticut came in fourth last year. Vermont had the highest multiple jobholding rate at 9.2 percent, while Massachusetts recorded the lowest at 5.8 percent. The table also shows that the largest percentage point decrease in multiple jobholding rate between 1994 and 2000 happened in Minnesota (-2.3), while Maine had the largest increase (+2.1).

Multiple Jobholding Rates by State, Annual Averages
State 1994 2000
Alabama.............. 5.2 5.1
Alaska............... 8.3 7.6
Arizona............. 6.3 4.9
Arkansas............. 5.5 5.4
California......... 4.9 4.8
Colorado.............. 7.9 6.0
Connecticut........... 6.1 6.5
Delaware.............. 5.5 5.7
District of Columbia 5.3 6.2
Florida............. 5.2 3.9
Georgia............. 5.0 4.2
Hawaii............... 8.7 9.3
Idaho............... 8.9 7.9
Illinois............ 5.9 5.4
Indiana............... 5.9 6.0
Iowa................ 9.8 8.1
Kansas.............. 9.6 8.0
Kentucky............ 5.2 5.7
Louisiana........... 4.4 4.2
Maine............... 6.5 8.6
Maryland............ 7.2 5.8
Massachusetts....... 6.5 5.8
Michigan.............. 6.4 5.3
Minnesota............. 10.7 8.4
Mississippi........... 4.4 4.3
Missouri.............. 7.0 7.6
Montana............. 9.0 9.8
Nebraska.............. 9.4 10.3
Nevada.............. 4.3 5.0
New Hampshire.......... 7.3 6.3
New Jersey........... 5.4 4.2
New Mexico.......... 5.7 4.8
New York.............. 5.0 5.0
North Carolina........ 5.3 4.9
North Dakota......... 9.1 10.0
Ohio................ 6.2 6.3
Oklahoma............. 5.9 6.4
Oregon.............. 8.2 6.4
Pennsylvania........ 5.1 5.7
Rhode Island......... 6.8 7.8
South Carolina....... 4.0 4.5
South Dakota........ 9.9 9.0
Tennessee........... 6.1 5.1
Texas............... 5.2 4.7
Utah................. 8.2 7.0
Vermont.............. 7.9 9.2
Virginia.............. 6.0 5.6
Washington............ 6.8 7.6
West Virginia....... 5.1 5.1
Wisconsin........... 8.0 8.0
Wyoming............... 8.2 8.8
Total, U.S 6.0 5.6

Data on the characteristics of multiple jobholders are not available on a state level, but the national figures for 2000 reveal some interesting facts. For men, the multiple jobholding rate was 5.5 percent, while women's was 5.7 percent. For men, the 25 to 54 years old age group had the highest multiple jobholding rate (5.8%), while for women it was the 20 to 24 age group (6.6%). Overall, nearly 75 percent of the multiple jobholders were 25 to 54 years old. Whites had the largest share of workers holding more than one job at 5.7 percent, compared with 5.3 percent for blacks, and 3.4 percent for Hispanics. Among white workers, a slightly higher percentage of women held more than one job (5.8%) than men (5.6%). For blacks and Hispanics, however, men were somewhat more likely to be multiple jobholders than women.

The national data also contains breakdowns by marital status and full- and part-time work status. Persons widowed, divorced, or separated who held more than one job made up 6.1 percent of the nation's workforce. Singles (never married) made up 5.7 percent, and those married, 5.4 percent. More married men than married women held multiple jobs. The opposite was the case with those widowed, divorced, or separated, and singles, where women had higher multiple jobholding rates than men.

Over half of the multiple jobholders worked their primary job full time and their secondary job part time. Twenty percent held part-time primary and secondary jobs. For men, an overwhelmingly high number of multiple jobholders had primary full-time jobs and secondary part-time jobs (61%); for only 13 percent were both jobs part-time. But for women, 49 percent held primary full-time jobs and secondary part-time jobs, while 30 percent had primary and secondary jobs, both part time.


According to data from the Current Population Survey, people become multiple jobholders for various reasons. Nationally, four out of every ten worked more than one job to meet regular household expenses or to pay off debt. Other common reasons for multiple jobholding included enjoying the work on the second job, wanting to save for the future, wanting to get experience or build up a business, and wanting some extra money to buy something special. Working more than one job to pay off debts was most likely among those aged 16 to 24. They were also most likely to hold an extra job to get money to buy something special. The group aged 55 and older had the greatest percentage of workers who reported that they worked multiple jobs because they enjoyed the work on the second job.

As the current economic expansion continued during the late 1990s, the number of multiple jobholders has edged down. Since about two-fifths of multiple jobholders worked more than one job to meet regular household expenses or to pay off debts, this in part would explain their declining numbers because the continuing strength in the economy has enabled them to meet regular household expenses or pay off debts without having to work more than one job.


The Bureau of Labor Statistics does not publish state data on multiple jobholders because sample sizes are too small to yield sufficiently reliable estimates. As a result, changes in rates from year to year and comparisons among states need to be viewed with caution. Nevertheless, we consider these data, when taken in context with the national figures and over multiple years, to be informative. We will continue to use these and other unpublished data when we believe their value exceeds the risk of providing misleading information about the state's workforce and economy.

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Town/City Profile: Bristol
By Mark Prisloe, Senior Economist, DECD

The City of Bristol's Website notes: "From clockmaking, springmaking, and ballbearing industries to the high-tech sportscasting and recycling businesses, Bristol has shown a steady, firm capability to grow and change with the world that surrounds it." Bristol is the ninth largest city in Connecticut with a population of 60,062.

Bristol earned its nickname as a distinction of its early industrial prominence. The town's seal represents the face of a clock since Bristol was the first town in the country to manufacture clocks in 1790. Throughout the early and middle 1800s, Bristol was the premiere clock manufacturing center in the world. A renowned clock museum can still be visited in the City.

Clock manufacturing caused related industries to grow along with it. The most notable of these was the spring industry. Albert and Edward Rockwell came to Bristol in 1888 to start their "new departure" in bell manufacturing. Their invention used a spring driven mechanism to ring a doorbell rather than the commonly used electrical battery. The Rockwell brothers’ invention was so successful that their New Departure Bell Co. grew into one of the largest bell factories in America, giving Bristol its distinction as the Bell City.

Bristol is also considered the "Mum City" of the United States because of the many chrysanthemums grown and sold. Each year a "Mum Festival" celebrates this aspect of the City's heritage. Bristol offers museums, the oldest amusement park in the country at Lake Compounce and is also known around the world as home to ESPN, the popular sports network, and the home of the Northeastern Regional Little League Headquarters.


Bristol's labor force has remained fairly steady in recent years. As the table below shows, unemployment is down to its lowest level in a decade at 2.4 percent. The labor force even grew in 2000 by 2.1 percent from a year ago. The largest employment sector is services representing over one quarter of all employment, followed by manufacturing employing nearly 23 percent of the workforce. Also important is retail trade, which showed a rebound to $434 million in sales volume in 2000, up 7.8 percent over the year. Among the largest employers are ESPN, Bristol Hospital, Theis Precision, Barnes Group, and the Bristol Press. Among the highest paid are workers from the transportation, communications, and utilities sector with average wages over $63,000 annually. Manufacturing workers average $46,911 and those in wholesale trade $47,644. Although Bristol saw a large jump in housing permit activity following the early 1990s recession, recent housing permit activity was down except for spikes in 1996 and 1998.


Downtown Bristol in 2001 is slated for a major revitalization effort. According to plans filed with the State, since the closing of a major General Motors plant in the City's Chippens Hill area, the City secured Firestone Building Products from out of state to anchor the plant and twenty three companies have built new factories or relocated to Bristol since 1995. The City helped secure ESPN's future growth, including 1,500 new jobs, by constructing $3.5 million in infrastructure. With over 500 new and expanded jobs from CIGNA, Bristol has fostered over 3,000 new Connecticut jobs in the last six years. CIGNA has committed to 300 new employees within the next few years. Tunxis Community College opened a satellite facility in the North End. Bristol Center Mall will be the site of major redevelopment including a new CIGNA parking facility, transportation center and access improvements, beautification, faηade and traffic flow improvements, and rehabilitation of 80 housing units. Even a greenway with bike and walking trails and linkages is an anticipated feature of the plan. A new major exhibit is also anticipated at the Carousel Museum that attracts 16,000 visitors every year. In short, Bristol is a city on the move.

Bristol City Trends

Industry 1990 1999 2000
Units Jobs Wages Units Jobs Wages Units Jobs Wages
Total 1,441 21,591 $25,204 1,276 20,420 $36,922 1,253 20,460 $39,133
Agriculture 26 80 $18,773 20 76 $24,291 22 83 $22,876
Construction 285 1,010 $31,378 186 951 $37,105 178 926 $39,046
Manufacturing 164 5,429 $31,798 157 4,472 $42,236 164 4,694 $46,911
Trans.,Comm. & Utilities 24 855 $38,929 22 1,900 $60,592 22 2,016 $63,591
Wholesale Trade 77 955 $35,529 82 842 $49,419 75 820 $47,644
Retail Trade 325 4,303 $14,240 291 3,958 $19,614 283 3,685 $20,099
Finance, Ins. & Real Estate 104 1,649 $20,896 72 651 $33,938 75 626 $36,532
Services 398 4,890 $21,903 407 5,386 $33,921 393 5,403 $34,394
Federal Government 5 344 $17,650 5 132 $43,826 5 128 $45,516
State Government 10 213 $25,872 12 172 $43,456 12 174 $45,919
Local Government 21 1,851 $30,552 20 1,865 $40,209 19 1,886 $41,391

Economic Indicators \ Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Population  60,640 60,965 60,604 60,340 59,939 59,679 59,497 59,243 59,158 59,145 60,062
Labor Force 35,855 36,564 35,554 34,558 33,312 32,260 32,122 31,716 30,879 31,139 31,779
   Employed 33,733 33,375 32,325 31,975 31,105 30,141 30,046 29,983 29,815 30,011 31,015
   Unemployed 2,122 3,189 3,229 2,583 2,207 2,119 2,076 1,733 1,064 1,128 764
   Unemployment Rate 5.9 8.7 9.1 7.5 6.6 6.6 6.5 5.5 3.4 3.6 2.4
New Housing Permits 90 128 84 120 183 87 105 88 93 92 77
Retail Sales ($mil.) 372.7 451.5 335.0 353.5 379.5 416.9 442.4 437.1 433.1 402.6 434.1

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Occupation Profile: Correctional Officer
By Brandon T. Hooker, Research Analyst, DOL


Connecticut is actively planning to expand its current correctional system, and is increasing its efforts to recruit skilled personnel. This effort may present new employment opportunities to prospective correctional officers seeking employment. Statewide, there are 4,139 officers currently employed by the Connecticut Department of Correction (DOC).

What Do They Do?

A correctional officer's primary responsibilities can vary on a daily basis, but are typically concentrated in one or more of the following areas: supervising inmates within a correctional facility, or while transporting them, conducting security inspections and investigations, logging/tracking inmate conduct, behavior and movement, and supervising offenders in the community near completion of their sentences. Officers are called upon to apply and adhere to the regulations and institutional policies set forth by the DOC. Due to the occupation's potentially volatile working conditions, officers must make best use of their interpersonal and oral/written communication skills in order to protect the public, fellow staff and the general inmate population.

Education and Training

The DOC will only appoint applicants to their Cheshire training academy who meet its specialized qualifications for employment. All candidates must be at least 21 years of age and have attained their high school diploma or passed the General Educational Development (GED) exam. An individual is required to pass a variety of strength/endurance and character examinations, which properly assess his or her ability to handle violent altercations and the mental stress associated with this position. The DOC also tests levels of cognitive ability, since this occupation relies primarily upon how effectively an officer analyzes and resolves conflicts within the detention center.

An appointee to the training academy will learn to apply proper security and custody procedures, institutional policy/regulations, and facility management. Over time, qualified officers are often promoted and offered various supervisory or administrative positions including: correctional lieutenant, counselor supervisor or warden.

Where Do They Work?

The Connecticut Department of Correction is the sole employer of correctional officers within the State. Correctional officers will perform the majority of their job duties within the confined quarters of a correctional facility. These facilities are located across the State in various urban and rural communities such as Bridgeport, Brooklyn, Hartford, and Suffield. Both Cheshire and Enfield house three facilities which provide services for over 2,500 inmates on an annual basis.


Correctional officers’ wages tend to vary on a state by state basis. For example, state and local governments offer annual starting salaries of $14,600 in California and $34,100 in New Jersey. As of 1999, the average annual earning of U.S. correctional officers was $31,070. Connecticut's academy cadets can expect to earn the equivalent of $28,355 per year during their initial ten-week probationary period. After successful completion of the training program, a cadet is promoted to the class of correctional officer and typically earns $31,505 or more annually.

Employment Outlook

In the United States, federal, state, and local governments employed approximately 381,250 correctional officers in 1999. The natural attrition of personnel, job transfers, and an increasing demand for trained officers should fuel the generation of openings throughout the country. However, budgetary constraints, an inability to attract qualified applicants, and relatively low salary structures continue to negatively affect the expansion of states’ correctional agencies. Yet, the employment forecast for this occupation in Connecticut looks promising, as the Connecticut Department of Labor projects 194 annual job placements over the next ten years. Today, the DOC is in the process of expanding the MacDougall-Walker Correctional Facility in Suffield in an effort to cope with Connecticut's rising offender population.

Human resource information regarding correctional officers in Connecticut is available by contacting the Department of Correction at (860) 692-7600. To explore various employment opportunities currently available to you, visit the Connecticut Department of Labor's Web site at or call (860)263-6275 for the most up-to-date labor market information.

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Industry Clusters
Bioscience Leader Pfizer - a Catalyst in New London

The completion of the new Pfizer Global Research and Development (PGRD) Facility in New London marks one of the most significant economic development and "brownfield" redevelopment projects in the State's history.

The city of New London, the New London Development Corporation (NLDC), Pfizer, and the DECD collaborated to trans-form this once neglected site into a $300 million state-of-the-art research facility. Pfizer Global Research Development is the world's largest pharmaceutical research and development organization. The company discovers, manufactures, and markets prescription medications for humans and animals. Although Pfizer considered several sites for construction of their new global headquarters, the company ultimately selected the New London peninsula because officials recognized the economic potential of the area and the opportunity to play a major role in its development.

The project will bring over 2,000 Pfizer employees to the area to work, shop, and live, translating into $320 million annual gross state product and $21 million in state taxes. Over the next 20 years 1,800 secondary jobs will be created. Pfizer's modern facility consists of three six-story office buildings, a parking garage, helipad, ferry dock for employees commuting from Pfizer's Groton labs, fitness center, cafeteria, credit union, and a child care center.

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Housing Update
August 2001 Housing Permit Activity

Commissioner James F. Abromaitis of the Connecticut Department of Economic and Community Development (DECD) announced that Connecticut communities authorized 1,055 new housing units in August 2001, a 35.8 percent increase compared to August of 2000 when 777 units were authorized.

The Department further indicated that the 1,055 units permitted in August 2001 represent an increase of 15.9 percent from the 910 units permitted in July 2001. The year-to-date permits are up by 2.7 percent, from 6,323 through August 2000, to 6,494 through August 2001.

New Haven Labor Market Area (LMA) recorded the largest gain of new authorized units (114) compared to a year ago. New Haven Labor Market Area also experienced the largest percentage increase (132.6) from 86 units in August 2000 to 200 units in August 2001. New Haven led all Connecticut communities with 66 units, followed by Cheshire with 44 and Vernon with 43. From a county perspective, New Haven County demonstrated the largest gain (103 units) and highest percentage gain (64.8 percent) of new authorized units from a year ago.

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Last Updated: November 5, 2002